CertVerify – A Scanner That Files With Compromised Or Untrusted Code Signing Certificates

The CertVerify is a tool designed to detect executable files (exe, dll, sys) that have been signed with untrusted or leaked code signing certificates. The purpose of this tool is to identify potentially malicious files that have been signed using certificates that have been compromised, stolen, or are not from a trusted source.

Why is this tool needed?

Executable files signed with compromised or untrusted code signing certificates can be used to distribute malware and other malicious software. Attackers can use these files to bypass security controls and to make their malware appear legitimate to victims. This tool helps to identify these files so that they can be removed or investigated further.

As a continuous project of the previous malware scanner, i have created such a tool. This type of tool is also essential in the event of a security incident response.

Scope of use and limitations

  1. The CertVerify cannot guarantee that all files identified as suspicious are necessarily malicious. It is possible for files to be falsely identified as suspicious, or for malicious files to go undetected by the scanner.

  2. The scanner only targets code signing certificates that have been identified as malicious by the public community. This includes certificates extracted by malware analysis tools and services, and other public sources. There are many unverified malware signing certificates, and it is not possible to obtain the entire malware signing certificate the tool can only detect some of them. For additional detection, you have to extract the certificate’s serial number and fingerprint information yourself and add it to the signatures.

  3. The scope of this tool does not include the extraction of code signing information for special rootkits that have already preempted and operated under the kernel, such as FileLess bootkits, or hidden files hidden by high-end technology. In other words, if you run this tool, it will be executed at the user level. Similar functions at the kernel level are more accurate with antirootkit or EDR. Please keep this in mind and focus on the ideas and principles… To implement the principle that is appropriate for the purpose of this tool, you need to development a driver(sys) and run it into the kernel with NTSYSTEM privileges.

  4. Nevertheless, if you want to run this tool in the event of a Windows system intrusion incident, and your purpose is sys files, boot into safe mode or another boot option that does not load the extra driver(sys) files (load only default system drivers) of the Windows system before running the tool. I think this can be a little more helpful.

  5. Alternatively, mount the Windows system disk to the Linux and run the tool in the Linux environment. I think this could yield better results.


  • File inspection based on leaked or untrusted certificate lists.
  • Scanning includes subdirectories.
  • Ability to define directories to exclude from scanning.
  • Supports multiprocessing for faster job execution.
  • Whitelisting based on certificate subject (e.g., Microsoft subject certificates are exempt from detection).
  • Option to skip inspection of unsigned files for faster scans.
  • Easy integration with SIEM systems such as Splunk by attaching scan_logs.
  • Easy-to-handle and customizable code and function structure.


  • Please let me know if any changes are required or if additional features are needed.
  • If you find this helpful, please consider giving it a “star” to support further improvements.


Scan result_log

datetime="2023-03-06 20:17:57",scan_id="87ea3e7b-dedc-4016-a43e-5c83f8d27c6e",os_version="Windows",hostname="DESKTOP-S5VJGLH",ip_address="",infected_file="F:codepythonProjectcertverifytestchrome.exe",signature_hash="sha256",serial_number="0e4418e2dede36dd2974c3443afb5ce5",thumbprint="7d3d117664f121e592ef897973ef9c159150e3d736326e9cd2755f71e0febc0c",subject_name="Google LLC",issu   er_name="DigiCert Trusted G4 Code Signing RSA4096 SHA384 2021 CA1",file_created_at="2023-03-03 23:20:41",file_modified_at="2022-04-14 06:17:04"
datetime="2023-03-06 20:17:58",scan_id="87ea3e7b-dedc-4016-a43e-5c83f8d27c6e",os_version="Windows",hostname="DESKTOP-S5VJGLH",ip_address="",infected_file="F:codepythonProjectcertverifytestLineLauncher.exe",signature_hash="sha256",serial_number="0d424ae0be3a88ff604021ce1400f0dd",thumbprint="b3109006bc0ad98307915729e04403415c83e3292b614f26964c8d3571ecf5a9",subject_name="DigiCert Timestamp 2021",issuer_name="DigiCert SHA2 Assured ID Timestamping CA",file_created_at="2023-03-03 23:20:42",file_modified_at="2022-03-10 18:00:10"
datetime="2023-03-06 20:17:58",scan_id="87ea3e7b-dedc-4016-a43e-5c83f8d27c6e",os_version="Windows",hostname="DESKTOP-S5VJGLH",ip_address="",infected_file="F:codepythonProjectcertverifytestLineUpdater.exe",signature_hash="sha256",serial_number="0d424ae0be3a88ff604021ce1400f0dd",thumb print="b3109006bc0ad98307915729e04403415c83e3292b614f26964c8d3571ecf5a9",subject_name="DigiCert Timestamp 2021",issuer_name="DigiCert SHA2 Assured ID Timestamping CA",file_created_at="2023-03-03 23:20:42",file_modified_at="2022-04-06 10:06:28"
datetime="2023-03-06 20:17:59",scan_id="87ea3e7b-dedc-4016-a43e-5c83f8d27c6e",os_version="Windows",hostname="DESKTOP-S5VJGLH",ip_address="",infected_file="F:codepythonProjectcertverifytestTWOD_Launcher.exe",signature_hash="sha256",serial_number="073637b724547cd847acfd28662a5e5b",thumbprint="281734d4592d1291d27190709cb510b07e22c405d5e0d6119b70e73589f98acf",subject_name="DigiCert Trusted G4 RSA4096 SHA256 TimeStamping CA",issuer_name="DigiCert Trusted Root G4",file_created_at="2023-03-03 23:20:42",file_modified_at="2022-04-07 09:14:08"
datetime="2023-03-06 20:18:00",scan_id="87ea3e7b-dedc-4016-a43e-5c83f8d27c6e",os_version="Windows",hostname="DESKTOP-S5VJGLH",ip_address="",infected_file="F:codepythonProject certverifytestVBoxSup.sys",signature_hash="sha256",serial_number="2f451139512f34c8c528b90bca471f767b83c836",thumbprint="3aa166713331d894f240f0931955f123873659053c172c4b22facd5335a81346",subject_name="VirtualBox for Legacy Windows Only Timestamp Kludge 2014",issuer_name="VirtualBox for Legacy Windows Only Timestamp CA",file_created_at="2023-03-03 23:20:43",file_modified_at="2022-10-11 08:11:56"
datetime="2023-03-06 20:31:59",scan_id="f71277c5-ed4a-4243-8070-7e0e56b0e656",os_version="Windows",hostname="DESKTOP-S5VJGLH",ip_address="",infected_file="F:codepythonProjectcertverifytestchrome.exe",signature_hash="sha256",serial_number="0e4418e2dede36dd2974c3443afb5ce5",thumbprint="7d3d117664f121e592ef897973ef9c159150e3d736326e9cd2755f71e0febc0c",subject_name="Google LLC",issuer_name="DigiCert Trusted G4 Code Signing RSA4096 SHA384 2021 CA1",file_created_at="2023-03-03 23:20:41",file_modified_at="2022-04-14 06:17:04"
datetime="2023-03-06 20:32:00",scan_id="f71277c 5-ed4a-4243-8070-7e0e56b0e656",os_version="Windows",hostname="DESKTOP-S5VJGLH",ip_address="",infected_file="F:codepythonProjectcertverifytestLineLauncher.exe",signature_hash="sha256",serial_number="0d424ae0be3a88ff604021ce1400f0dd",thumbprint="b3109006bc0ad98307915729e04403415c83e3292b614f26964c8d3571ecf5a9",subject_name="DigiCert Timestamp 2021",issuer_name="DigiCert SHA2 Assured ID Timestamping CA",file_created_at="2023-03-03 23:20:42",file_modified_at="2022-03-10 18:00:10"
datetime="2023-03-06 20:32:00",scan_id="f71277c5-ed4a-4243-8070-7e0e56b0e656",os_version="Windows",hostname="DESKTOP-S5VJGLH",ip_address="",infected_file="F:codepythonProjectcertverifytestLineUpdater.exe",signature_hash="sha256",serial_number="0d424ae0be3a88ff604021ce1400f0dd",thumbprint="b3109006bc0ad98307915729e04403415c83e3292b614f26964c8d3571ecf5a9",subject_name="DigiCert Timestamp 2021",issuer_name="DigiCert SHA2 Assured ID Timestamping CA",file_created_at="2023-03-03 23:20:42",file_modified_at="2022-04-06 10:06:28"
datetime="2023-03-06 20:32:01",scan_id="f71277c5-ed4a-4243-8070-7e0e56b0e656",os_version="Windows",hostname="DESKTOP-S5VJGLH",ip_address="",infected_file="F:codepythonProjectcertverifytestTWOD_Launcher.exe",signature_hash="sha256",serial_number="073637b724547cd847acfd28662a5e5b",thumbprint="281734d4592d1291d27190709cb510b07e22c405d5e0d6119b70e73589f98acf",subject_name="DigiCert Trusted G4 RSA4096 SHA256 TimeStamping CA",issuer_name="DigiCert Trusted Root G4",file_created_at="2023-03-03 23:20:42",file_modified_at="2022-04-07 09:14:08"
datetime="2023-03-06 20:32:02",scan_id="f71277c5-ed4a-4243-8070-7e0e56b0e656",os_version="Windows",hostname="DESKTOP-S5VJGLH",ip_address="",infected_file="F:codepythonProjectcertverifytestVBoxSup.sys",signature_hash="sha256",serial_number="2f451139512f34c8c528b90bca471f767b83c836",thumbprint="3aa166713331d894f240f0931955f123873659053c172c4b22facd5335a81346",subjec t_name="VirtualBox for Legacy Windows Only Timestamp Kludge 2014",issuer_name="VirtualBox for Legacy Windows Only Timestamp CA",file_created_at="2023-03-03 23:20:43",file_modified_at="2022-10-11 08:11:56"
datetime="2023-03-06 20:33:45",scan_id="033976ae-46cb-4c2e-a357-734353f7e09a",os_version="Windows",hostname="DESKTOP-S5VJGLH",ip_address="",infected_file="F:codepythonProjectcertverifytestchrome.exe",signature_hash="sha256",serial_number="0e4418e2dede36dd2974c3443afb5ce5",thumbprint="7d3d117664f121e592ef897973ef9c159150e3d736326e9cd2755f71e0febc0c",subject_name="Google LLC",issuer_name="DigiCert Trusted G4 Code Signing RSA4096 SHA384 2021 CA1",file_created_at="2023-03-03 23:20:41",file_modified_at="2022-04-14 06:17:04"
datetime="2023-03-06 20:33:45",scan_id="033976ae-46cb-4c2e-a357-734353f7e09a",os_version="Windows",hostname="DESKTOP-S5VJGLH",ip_address="",infected_file="F:codepythonProjectcertverifytestLineLauncher.exe",signature_hash="sha 256",serial_number="0d424ae0be3a88ff604021ce1400f0dd",thumbprint="b3109006bc0ad98307915729e04403415c83e3292b614f26964c8d3571ecf5a9",subject_name="DigiCert Timestamp 2021",issuer_name="DigiCert SHA2 Assured ID Timestamping CA",file_created_at="2023-03-03 23:20:42",file_modified_at="2022-03-10 18:00:10"
datetime="2023-03-06 20:33:45",scan_id="033976ae-46cb-4c2e-a357-734353f7e09a",os_version="Windows",hostname="DESKTOP-S5VJGLH",ip_address="",infected_file="F:codepythonProjectcertverifytestLineUpdater.exe",signature_hash="sha256",serial_number="0d424ae0be3a88ff604021ce1400f0dd",thumbprint="b3109006bc0ad98307915729e04403415c83e3292b614f26964c8d3571ecf5a9",subject_name="DigiCert Timestamp 2021",issuer_name="DigiCert SHA2 Assured ID Timestamping CA",file_created_at="2023-03-03 23:20:42",file_modified_at="2022-04-06 10:06:28"
datetime="2023-03-06 20:33:46",scan_id="033976ae-46cb-4c2e-a357-734353f7e09a",os_version="Windows",hostname="DESKTOP-S5VJGLH",ip_address="192. 168.0.23",infected_file="F:codepythonProjectcertverifytestTWOD_Launcher.exe",signature_hash="sha256",serial_number="073637b724547cd847acfd28662a5e5b",thumbprint="281734d4592d1291d27190709cb510b07e22c405d5e0d6119b70e73589f98acf",subject_name="DigiCert Trusted G4 RSA4096 SHA256 TimeStamping CA",issuer_name="DigiCert Trusted Root G4",file_created_at="2023-03-03 23:20:42",file_modified_at="2022-04-07 09:14:08"
datetime="2023-03-06 20:33:47",scan_id="033976ae-46cb-4c2e-a357-734353f7e09a",os_version="Windows",hostname="DESKTOP-S5VJGLH",ip_address="",infected_file="F:codepythonProjectcertverifytestVBoxSup.sys",signature_hash="sha256",serial_number="2f451139512f34c8c528b90bca471f767b83c836",thumbprint="3aa166713331d894f240f0931955f123873659053c172c4b22facd5335a81346",subject_name="VirtualBox for Legacy Windows Only Timestamp Kludge 2014",issuer_name="VirtualBox for Legacy Windows Only Timestamp CA",file_created_at="2023-03-03 23:20:43",file_modified_at="2022-10-11 08:11:56"
Faraday – Open Source Vulnerability Management Platform

Faraday – Open Source Vulnerability Management Platform

Security has two difficult tasks: designing smart ways of getting new information, and keeping track of findings to improve remediation efforts. With Faraday, you may focus on discovering vulnerabilities while we help you with the rest. Just use it in your terminal and get your work organized on the run. Faraday was made to let you take advantage of the available tools in the community in a truly multiuser way.

Faraday aggregates and normalizes the data you load, allowing exploring it into different visualizations that are useful to managers and analysts alike.

To read about the latest features check out the release notes!



The easiest way to get faraday up and running is using our docker-compose

$ wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/infobyte/faraday/master/docker-compose.yaml
$ docker-compose up

If you want to customize, you can find an example config over here Link


You need to have a Postgres running first.

 $ docker run 
-v $HOME/.faraday:/home/faraday/.faraday
-p 5985:5985
-e PGSQL_USER='postgres_user'
-e PGSQL_HOST='postgres_ip'
-e PGSQL_PASSWD='postgres_password'
-e PGSQL_DBNAME='postgres_db_name'


$ pip3 install faradaysec
$ faraday-manage initdb
$ faraday-server

Binary Packages (Debian/RPM)

You can find the installers on our releases page

$ sudo apt install faraday-server_amd64.deb
# Add your user to the faraday group
$ faraday-manage initdb
$ sudo systemctl start faraday-server

Add your user to the faraday group and then run


If you want to run directly from this repo, this is the recommended way:

$ pip3 install virtualenv
$ virtualenv faraday_venv
$ source faraday_venv/bin/activate
$ git clone [email protected]:infobyte/faraday.git
$ pip3 install .
$ faraday-manage initdb
$ faraday-server

Check out our documentation for detailed information on how to install Faraday in all of our supported platforms

For more information about the installation, check out our Installation Wiki.

In your browser now you can go to http://localhost:5985 and login with “faraday” as username, and the password given by the installation process

Getting Started

Learn about Faraday holistic approach and rethink vulnerability management.

Integrating faraday in your CI/CD

Setup Bandit and OWASP ZAP in your pipeline

Setup Bandit, OWASP ZAP and SonarQube in your pipeline

Faraday Cli

Faraday-cli is our command line client, providing easy access to the console tools, work in faraday directly from the terminal!

This is a great way to automate scans, integrate it to CI/CD pipeline or just get metrics from a workspace

$ pip3 install faraday-cli

Check our faraday-cli repo

Check out the documentation here.

Faraday Agents

Faraday Agents Dispatcher is a tool that gives Faraday the ability to run scanners or tools remotely from the platform and get the results.


Connect you favorite tools through our plugins. Right now there are more than 80+ supported tools, among which you will find:

Missing your favorite one? Create a Pull Request!

There are two Plugin types:

Console plugins which interpret the output of the tools you execute.

$ faraday-cli tool run "nmap www.exampledomain.com"
💻 Processing Nmap command
Starting Nmap 7.80 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2021-02-22 14:13 -03
Nmap scan report for www.exampledomain.com (
Host is up (0.17s latency).
rDNS record for
Not shown: 996 filtered ports
80/tcp open http
443/tcp open https
2222/tcp open EtherNetIP-1
3306/tcp closed mysql
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 11.12 seconds
⬆ Sending data to workspace: test
✔ Done

Report plugins which allows you to import previously generated artifacts like XMLs, JSONs.

faraday-cli tool report burp.xml

Creating custom plugins is super easy, Read more about Plugins.


You can access directly to our API, check out the documentation here.


Tai-e – An Easy-To-Learn/Use Static Analysis Framework For Java

Tai-e – An Easy-To-Learn/Use Static Analysis Framework For Java

What is Tai-e?

Tai-e (Chinese: 太阿; pronunciation: [ˈtaɪə:]) is a new static analysis framework for Java (please see our technical report for details), which features arguably the “best” designs from both the novel ones we proposed and those of classic frameworks such as Soot, WALA, Doop, and SpotBugs. Tai-e is easy-to-learn, easy-to-use, efficient, and highly extensible, allowing you to easily develop new analyses on top of it.

Currently, Tai-e provides the following major analysis components (and more analyses are on the way):

  • Powerful pointer analysis framework
    • On-the-fly call graph construction
    • Various classic and advanced techniques of heap abstraction and context sensitivity for pointer analysis
    • Extensible analysis plugin system (allows to conveniently develop and add new analyses that interact with pointer analysis)
  • Various fundamental/client/utility analyses
    • Fundamental analyses, e.g., reflection analysis and exception analysis
    • Modern language feature analyses, e.g., lambda and method reference analysis, and invokedynamic analysis
    • Clients, e.g., configurable taint analysis (allowing to configure sources, sinks and taint transfers)
    • Utility tools like analysis timer, constraint checker (for debugging), and various graph dumpers
  • Control/Data-flow analysis framework
    • Control-flow graph construction
    • Classic data-flow analyses, e.g., live variable analysis, constant propagation
    • Your data-flow analyses
  • SpotBugs-like bug detection system
    • Bug detectors, e.g., null pointer detector, incorrect clone() detector
    • Your bug detectors

Tai-e is developed in Java, and it can run on major operating systems including Windows, Linux, and macOS.

How to Obtain Runnable Jar of Tai-e?

The simplest way is to download it from GitHub Releases.

Alternatively, you might build the latest Tai-e yourself from the source code. This can be simply done via Gradle (be sure that Java 17 (or higher version) is available on your system). You just need to run command gradlew fatJar, and then the runnable jar will be generated in tai-e/build/, which includes Tai-e and all its dependencies.


We are hosting the documentation of Tai-e on the GitHub wiki, where you could find more information about Tai-e such as Setup in IntelliJ IDEA , Command-Line Options , and Development of New Analysis .

Tai-e Assignments

In addition, we have developed an educational version of Tai-e where eight programming assignments are carefully designed for systematically training learners to implement various static analysis techniques to analyze real Java programs. The educational version shares a large amount of code with Tai-e, thus doing the assignments would be a good way to get familiar with Tai-e.

Kscan – Simple Asset Mapping Tool

0 Disclaimer (The author did not participate in the XX action, don’t trace it)

  • This tool is only for legally authorized enterprise
    security construction behaviors and personal learning behaviors. If you
    need to test the usability of this tool, please build a target drone
    environment by yourself.

  • When using this tool for testing, you should ensure that
    the behavior complies with local laws and regulations and has obtained
    sufficient authorization. Do not scan unauthorized targets.

We reserve the right to pursue your legal responsibility if the above prohibited behavior is found.

If you have any illegal behavior in the process of using
this tool, you shall bear the corresponding consequences by yourself,
and we will not bear any legal and joint responsibility.

Before installing and using this tool, please be sure to carefully read and fully understand the terms and conditions.

Unless you have fully read, fully understood and accepted
all the terms of this agreement, please do not install and use this
tool. Your use behavior or your acceptance of this Agreement in any
other express or implied manner shall be deemed that you have read and
agreed to be bound by this Agreement.

1 Introduction

 _   __
|#| /#/ Lightweight Asset Mapping Tool by: kv2	
|#|/#/   _____  _____     *     _   _
|#.#/   /Edge/ /Forum|   /#   |# |#|
|##|   |#|___  |#|      /###  |##|#|
|#.#   #####|#|     /#/_# |#.#.#|
|#|# /___|#||#|____/#/####|#|##|
|#| #\#####/ #####/#/     ##| #|

Kscan is an asset mapping tool that can perform port
scanning, TCP fingerprinting and banner capture for specified assets,
and obtain as much port information as possible without sending more
packets. It can perform automatic brute force cracking on scan results,
and is the first open source RDP brute force cracking tool on the go

2 Foreword

At present, there are actually many tools for asset
scanning, fingerprint identification, and vulnerability detection, and
there are many great tools, but Kscan actually has many different ideas.

  • Kscan hopes to accept a variety of input formats, and
    there is no need to classify the scanned objects before use, such as IP,
    or URL address, etc. This is undoubtedly an unnecessary workload for
    users, and all entries can be normal Input and identification. If it is a
    URL address, the path will be reserved for detection. If it is only
    IP:PORT, the port will be prioritized for protocol identification.
    Currently Kscan supports three input methods

  • Kscan does not seek efficiency by comparing port numbers
    with common protocols to confirm port protocols, nor does it only detect
    WEB assets. In this regard, Kscan pays more attention to accuracy and
    comprehensiveness, and only high-accuracy protocol identification , in
    order to provide good detection conditions for subsequent application
    layer identification.

  • Kscan does not use a modular approach to do pure function
    stacking, such as a module obtains the title separately, a module
    obtains SMB information separately, etc., runs independently, and
    outputs independently, but outputs asset information in units of ports,
    such as ports If the protocol is HTTP, subsequent fingerprinting and
    title acquisition will be performed automatically. If the port protocol
    is RPC, it will try to obtain the host name, etc.

3 Compilation Manual

Compiler Manual

4 Get started

Kscan currently has 3 ways to input targets

  • -t/–target can add the –check parameter to fingerprint only the
    specified target port, otherwise the target will be port scanned and
IP address:
IP address range:
URL address: https://www.baidu.com
File address: file:/tmp/target.txt
  • –spy can add the –scan parameter to perform port scanning and
    fingerprinting on the surviving C segment, otherwise only the surviving
    network segment will be detected
[Empty]: will detect the IP address of the local machine and detect the B segment where the local IP is located
[all]: All private network addresses (192.168/172.32/10, etc.) will be probed
IP address: will detect the B segment where the specified IP address is located
  • -f/–fofa can add –check to verify the survivability of the
    retrieval results, and add the –scan parameter to perform port scanning
    and fingerprint identification on the retrieval results, otherwise only
    the fofa retrieval results will be returned
fofa search keywords: will directly return fofa search results

5 Instructions

usage: kscan [-h,--help,--fofa-syntax] (-t,--target,-f,--fofa,--spy) [-p,--port|--top] [-o,--output] [-oJ] [--proxy] [--threads] [--path] [--host] [--timeout] [-Pn] [-Cn] [-sV] [--check] [--encoding] [--hydra] [hydra options] [fofa options]

optional arguments:
  -h , --help     show this help message and exit
  -f , --fofa Get the detection object from fofa, you need to configure the environment variables in advance: FOFA_EMAIL, FOFA_KEY
  -t , --target Specify the detection target:
                  IP address:
                  IP address segment:, subnet mask less than 12 is not recommended
                  IP address range:
                  URL address: https://www.baidu.com
                  File address: file:/tmp/target.txt
  --spy network segment detection mode, in this mode, the internal network segment reachable by the host will be automatically detected. The acceptable parameters are:
                  (empty), 192, 10, 172, all, specified IP address (the IP address B segment will be detected as the surviving gateway)
  --check Fingerprinting the target address, only port detection will not be performed
  --scan will perform port scanning and fingerprinting on the target objects provided by --fofa and --spy
  -p , --port scan the specified port, TOP400 will be scanned by default, support: 80, 8080, 8088-8090
  -eP, --excluded-port skip scanning specified ports,support:80,8080,8088-8090
  -o , --output save scan results to file
  -oJ save the scan results to a file in json format
  -Pn After using this parameter, intelligent survivability detection will not be performed. Now intelligent survivability detection is enabled by default to improve efficiency.
  -Cn With this parameter, the console output will not be colored.
  -sV After using this parameter, all ports will be probed with full probes. This parameter greatly affects the efficiency, so use it with caution!
  --top Scan the filtered common ports TopX, up to 1000, the default is TOP400
  --proxy set proxy (socks5|socks4|https|http)://IP:Port
  --threads thread parameter, the default thread is 100, the maximum value is 2048
  --path specifies the directory to request access, only a single directory is supported
  --host specifies the header Host value for all requests
  --timeout set timeout
  --encoding Set the terminal output encoding, which can be specified as: gb2312, utf-8
  --match returns the banner to the asset for retrieval. If there is a keyword, it will be displayed, otherwise it will not be displayed
  --hydra automatic blasting support protocol: ssh, rdp, ftp, smb, mysql, mssql, oracle, postgresql, mongodb, redis, all are enabled by default
hydra options:
   --hydra-user custom hydra blasting username: username or user1,user2 or file:username.txt
   --hydra-pass Custom hydra blasting password: password or pass1,pass2 or file:password.txt
                  If there is a comma in the password, use , to escape, other symbols do not need to be escaped
   --hydra-update Customize the user name and password mode. If this parameter is carried, it is a new mode, and the user name and password will be added to the default dictionary. Otherwise the default dictionary will be replaced.
   --hydra-mod specifies the automatic brute force cracking module: rdp or rdp, ssh, smb
fofa options:
   --fofa-syntax will get fofa search syntax description
   --fofa-size will set the number of entries returned by fofa, the default is 100
   --fofa-fix-keyword Modifies the keyword, and the {} in this parameter will eventually be replaced with the value of the -f parameter

The function is not complicated, the others are explored by themselves

6 Demo

6.2 Survival network segment detection

6.3 Fofa result retrieval

6.4 Brute-force cracking

6.5 CDN identification

7 Special thanks

DotDumper – An Automatic Unpacker And Logger For DotNet Framework Targeting Files

DotDumper – An Automatic Unpacker And Logger For DotNet Framework Targeting Files

The minimal requirement to run a given sample, is to provide the “-file” argument, along with a file name or file path. If a full path is given, it is used. If a file name is given, the current working directory is checked, as well as the folder of DotDumper’s executable location.

Unless a directory name is provided, the “-log” folder name is set equal to the file name of the sample without the extension (if any). The folder is located in the same folder as DotDumper resides in, which is where the logs and dumped files will be saved in.

In the case of a library, or an alternative entry point into a binary, one must override the entry point using “-overrideEntry true”. Additionally, one has to provide the fully qualified class, which includes the name space using “-fqcn My.NameSpace.MyClass”. This tells DotDumper which class to select, which is where the provided function name (using “-functionName MyFunction”) is retrieved.

If the selected function requires arguments, one has to provide the number of arguments using “-argc” and the number of required arguments. The argument types and values are to be provided as “string|myValue int|9”. Note that when spaces are used in the values, the argument on the command-line interface needs to be encapsulated between quotes to ensure it is passed as a single argument.

Other less frequently used options such as “-raceTime” or “-deprecated” are safe in their default settings but might require tweaking in the future due to changes in the DotNet Framework. They are currently exposed in the command-line interface to easily allow changes, if need be, even if one is using an older version of DotDumper when the time comes.

First, the local system time is given, together with the original function’s return type, name, and argument(s). Second, the stack trace is given, where it shows that the sample’s main function leads to a constructor, initialises the components, and calls two custom functions. The Assembly.Load function was called from within “NavigationLib.TaskEightBestOil.GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG(String str)”. This provides context for the analyst to find the code around this call if it is of interest.

Then, information regarding the assembly call order is given. The more stages are loaded, the more complex it becomes to see via which stages the call came to be. One normally expects one stage to load the next, but in some cases later stages utilize previous stages in a non-linear order. Additionally, information regarding the originating assembly is given to further enrich the data for the analyst.

Next, the parent hash is given. The parent of a stage is the previous stage, which in this example is not yet present. The newly loaded stage will have this stage as its parent. This allows the analyst to correlate events more easily.

Finally, the function’s return type and value are stored, along with the type, name, and value of each argument that is passed to the hooked function. If any variable is larger than 100 bytes in size, it is stored on the disk instead. A reference is then inserted in the log to reference the file, rather than showing the value. The threshold has been set to avoid hiccups in the printing of the log, as some arrays are thousands of indices in size.

The function name in the first line is not an internal function of the DotNet Framework, but rather a call to a specific function in the second stage. The types and names of the three arguments are listed in the function signature. Their values can be found in the function argument information section. This would allow an analyst to load the second stage in a custom loader with the given values for the arguments, or even do this using DotDumper by loading the previously dumped stage and providing the arguments.

Knowing what hooks are is essential to understand what managed hooks are. Managed code is executed in a virtual and managed environment, such as the DotNet runtime or Java’s virtual machine. Obtaining the memory address where the managed function resides differs from an unmanaged language such as C. Once the correct memory addresses for both functions have been obtained, the hook can be set by directly accessing memory using unsafe C#, along with DotNet’s interoperability service to call native

DotDumper is under constant review and development, all of which is focused on two main areas of interest: bug fixing and the addition of new features. During the development, the code was tested, but due to injection of hooks into the DotNet Framework’s functions which can be subject to change, it’s very well possible that there are bugs in the code. Anyone who encounters a bug is urged to open an issue on the GitHub repository, which will then be looked at. The suggestion of new features is also possible via the GitHub repository. For those with a GitHub account, or for those who rather not publicly interact, feel free to send me a private message on my Twitter.

Needless to say, if you’ve used DotDumper during an analysis, or used it in a creative way, feel free to reach out in public or in private! There’s nothing like hearing about the usage of a home-made tool!

There is more in store for DotDumper, and an update will be sent out to the community once it is available!